Reduplicatives in English

 

 

Reduplication is a word-formation process in which the base word is repeated exactly or with a partial change of a vowel or a consonant. These words are also called ‘echo words’. Reduplicatives  never go alone but hand in hand and appear always in pairs. In reduplicatives, the pair word or repeated word claims no meaning of its own but emphasizes the meaning of the base word. We majorly find four categories of Reduplicatives in English Language.

1. Exact Reduplication:

In this process,  the word repeated is exactly the same as the first or base word. Baby words are also described as exact reduplications.

Ex., baa-baa, bang-bang, beriberi, blah blah etc.,

 

2. Rhyming Reduplication: ( with a change of consonant)

In this process of Reduplication, the second word rhymes with the base word by altering its consonant.

Ex., walky-talky, wheeler-dealer, mumbo-jumbo, Humpty Dumpty etc.,

 

3. Ablaut Reduplication: (with a change of vowel)

In this process of reduplication, the second words are formed by changing of a vowel in the base words.

Ex., bibble-babble, skimble-skamble, pitter-patter, jibber-jabber etc.,

 

4. Shm-Reduplication:

In this process of reduplication, we form a reduplicative by adding a ‘shm’ or ‘schm’to the base word just before a vowel sound in the first syllable. It is used to convey irony, sarcasm, skepticism, wit and poking fun. This process came into use in the U.S. with Yiddish speakers in the late 19th century.

Ex.,       syllable-shmyllable, baby-shmaby, fancy-schmancy etc.,

Exact Reduplications:

Rhyming

Reduplications:

(with a change of consonant)

Ablaut

Reduplications:

(with a change of vowel )

Shm-Reduplications:

ack-ack abracadabra bibble-babble apple – shmapple
aye-aye airy-fairy bric-a-brac baby – shmaby
baa-baa argy-bargy chiff chaff bagel – shmagel
bang-bang arsy varsy ching chong breakfast – shmreakfast or

breakfast – shmeakfast

beriberi artsy-fartsy chit-chat fancy – schmancy
blah blah arty-farty clip-clop money-shmoney
bling-bling barmy army clippety-cloppety sale – schmale
bonbon beanie-weenies crincum-crancum syllable – shmyllable
boo-hoo bees-knees crinkle-crankle union – shmyoonion or

union – shmoonion

bow-wow blogger-flogger criss-cross
bye-bye boo hoo diddle-daddle
cancan boogie-woogie dilly-dally
cha cha bow-wow dimber damber
chi-chi boy-toy ding-dong
chop chop brain drain dingle-dangle
froufrou bunny wunny fiddle-faddle
gaga chick-flick fingle-fangle
gee-gee chunky monkey flim-flam
girly girly clap-trap flip-flap
goody goody creepy-peepy flip-flop
ha-ha culture-vulture flipperty-flopperty
hush-hush dingaling gewgaw
knock-knock doggy woggy gibble-gabble
moo-moo double-trouble higgle-haggle
muumuu driver reviver hip-hop
neigh-neigh easy peasy jibber-jabber
night-night eensy-weensy jig jog
no-no even-steven jimjams
papa fam-bam knick-knack
pawpaw fender-bender mingle-mangle
pee pee fishy wishy mishmash
poo poo flotsam-jetsam mixty-maxty
rah-rah freaky-deaky niddle-noddle
rye-rye fuddle-duddle niddy-noddy
so so fuddy-duddy ping pong
ta-ta fuzzy-wuzzy pish posh
tom-tom gang bang pit-a-pat
tuk tuk gender bender pitter-patter
tum-tum ginger minger pittle-pattle
tutu handy-dandy plinky-plonky
wee-wee hanky-panky popo
yada-yada happy-clappy prittle-prattle
yoyo harum-scarum ribble-rabble
yum-yum heebie-jeebies riff-raff
hee-haw riprap
helter-skelter scribble-scrabble
herky-jerky see-saw
hi-fi shilly-shally
higgledy-piggledy ship-shape
hink pink sing-song
hippie-dippie skimble-skamble
hippy-dippy slipslop
hity-tity snipper-snapper
hob-nob snip-snap
hobson-jobson swish-swash
hocus-pocus tick-tock
hodge-podge ticky-tacky
hoity-toity tic-tac
hokey-pokey tip-top
holey-moley tittle-tattle
hooly dooly twittle-twattle
hootchie-kootchie twit-twat
hotchpotch whiff-whaff
hotspot whim-wham
hotsy-totsy wibble-wobble
hub bub wibbly-wobbly
Hubble-bubble wifty-wafty
hugger-mugger wigwag
hullabaloo wish-wash
humdrum wishy-washy
Humpty Dumpty wringle-wrangle
hurdy-gurdy zig-zag
hurly-burly
hurry-scurry
Igglepiggle
incy wincy
ing-bing
itsy-bitsy
itty-bitty
Jeepers-creepers
jellybelly
kiddy widdy
kitty witty
laptop
lardy-dardy
loosey-goosey
lovey-dovey
mumbo-jumbo
namby-pamby
niminy-piminy
nitty-gritty
nit-wit
okey-dokey
ooey-gooey
pall-mall
palsy-walsy
party hardy
party hearty
pell-mell
phoney-baloney
piggy wiggy
pooper scooper
pow-wow
purple nurple
ragbag
raggle-taggle
ragtag
razzle-dazzle
razzmatazz
ring-a-ling
rocket docket
roly-poly
rugger bugger
rumpy-pumpy
silly billy
snailmail
super-duper
teensy-weensy
teeny-weeny
tootsy-wootsy
topsy-turvy
tozy-mozy
trolley dolly
voodoo
walkie-talkie
walky-talky
wheeler-dealer
wi-fi
willy-nilly
wingding
yummy mummy

 

 

 

Post Author: CHALLA

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