Gerund

Gerund

Gerund

The Gerund: (Verbal Noun)

The form of the Verb ending in ‘-ing’ used as a Noun is called Gerund or Verbal Noun.

The form of the Present Participle and Gerund is the same but the usage is different.

 

Gerund: It has the force of a Verb and Noun. It is a Verbal Noun. 

Examples:

  • Seeing is believing.
  • I like playing chess.
  • Teaching is my profession.

 

Present Participle: It has the force of an Adjective and Verb. It is a Verbal Adjective.

Examples:

  • Seeing all these things, he believed.
  • Playing chess, he became popular.
  • Teaching for many years, I got good experience.

 

Uses of the Gerund:

As the Subject of a Verb

Examples:

  • Reading books is a good habit.
  • Smoking cigarettes is injurious to health.
  • Trespassing is prohibited.
  • Seeing is believing.
  • Swimming is good for your health.
  • Brushing your teeth is a regular activity.

As the Subject Complement (or Complement of the Verb)

Examples:

  • My brother’s favorite activity is cooking. 
  • One of her duties is maintaining the Computer Lab.
  • His main goal is developing the school.
  • The government’s main motto is reducing poverty.

As the Object of a Verb

Examples:

  • I love reading books
  • Start driving.
  • They don’t like watching TV.
  • They enjoy swimming.

As the Object of a Preposition

Examples:

  • My son is good at painting.
  • He is interested in attending the classes.
  • He is fond of playing chess.
  • They are thinking of starting a school.
  • She is desirous of owning a big car.
  • They are prevented from entering the airport.
  • The child is confident of winning the match.
  • They are tired of waiting for their friend.
  • There’s no point in arguing.
  • He was awarded for telling the truth.

Verbs with Prepositions followed by Gerund

• accuse of

• agree with

• apologize for

• ask about

• believe in

• be used to

• blame for

• care for

• carry on

• complain about

• concentrate on

• depend on

• dream about/of

• feel like

• forgive for

• give up

• insist on

• keep on

• look forward to

• object to

• think of

• succeed in

• use for 

Absolute Construction

Examples:

  • Playing piano being his passion, he requested his father to buy the piano.
  • Writing being his area of interest, we asked him to write short stories.
  • Blogging being my hobby, I have created the blog ‘schoollead.in’.

In Apposition to a Noun

Examples:

  • His idea, helping the poor people, has been appreciated by all.
  • Their plan, forming a new organization, seems difficult for him.

After Phrasal Verbs

(a verb + preposition or adverb)

Examples:

  • It is easy to give up smoking.  I gave up so many times.
  • He went on giving his lecture for a long time.
  • She kept on postponing it several times.
  • My friend ended up starting a new business.

Note:

We use Gerund after some phrasal verbs with “to” as a preposition like:

 to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to get around to, and to be used to.

Examples:

  • I was accustomed to getting up early. (means: I was accustomed to it)
  • She was used to singing songs.
  • I look forward to meeting you.

In some fixed expressions

Examples:

  • It’s no good doing…
  • It’s no use doing…

Correct use of the Gerund:

When Noun or Pronoun is used before a Gerund, we have you use its possessive form.

Examples:

  • They insisted on my attending the programme. ( not me attending)
  • We are not aware of his coming to the party. (not he/him coming)
  • They don’t not like Rajan’s playing in the team. 
  • I didn’t observe Rina’s entering the room.

Note:

But, we don’t use Possessive Case with the Gerund in the following situations.

 

  1. When the Gerund is used with Proper Noun and in the Passive Voice.

Examples:

  • They don’t like Rajan being praised by the teacher.
  • She is happy at Rina being selected for the award.

             2. When the Noun refers to a lifeless thing and comes before a Gerund.

Examples:

  • There is a chance of the system crashing down. (not system’s)
  • There is no danger of the building collapsing. (not building’s)

In certain compound Nouns, Gerund + Noun is always used as only Nouns but not as     Adjectives.

Examples:

walking-stick (a stick used for walking)

writing-pad  (a pad used for writing)

sleeping-pill, visiting- room, working-men, looking-glass, carving-knife, frying-pan, swimming pool, running shoes, drinking water, a reading lamp, 

Use of ‘Being’ and ‘Having’ as a Gerund:

Use of ‘Being’ as Gerund

Here, “being” is used with an adjective, a prepositional phrase, and a noun. 

Being expresses the experience or condition.

Examples: 

  • I avoid being late. (Being + Adjective)
  • He enjoys being in the position of Manager. (Being + Prepositional Phrase)
  • Do you like being a Principal? (Being + Noun)

More Examples:

  • Being healthy is always good. (Being +Adjective)
  • Not being healthy makes life miserable. (Being +Adjective)
  • Being in a dark room would be scary. (Being Prepositional Phrase)
  • Being a teacher is a responsible job. (Being +Noun)
  • She doesn’t spend time being alone.
  • Being stuck in traffic is really a big punishment.
  • Not being stuck in traffic would be a smooth journey.

Use of ‘Having’ as Gerund

‘Having’ can be used as the Subject, Object of a Preposition, or Subject Complement in a sentence. 

Having is always followed by a Noun Phrase. 

‘Having’ expresses the idea that we possess something.

Examples:

  • Having a Mercedes car is my dream. (Subject)
  • I dream of having a Mercedes car. (Object of a Preposition)
  • My dream is having a Mercedes car. (Subject Complement)

More Examples:

  • Having a big screen in my hall is what I want.
  • He does not like having too much work.
  • Not having a big screen in my hall is very boring.
  • Having too many doubts is a silly thing.
  • You have to worry about having health problems.
  • Not having any doubts would be a good idea.

The main difference between ‘being’ and ‘having’ as a Gerund:

“Being” expresses a state or experience.

Examples:

  • Being an entrepreneur is highly recommended nowadays.
  • Being a principal is not an easy job.

‘Having’ expresses the idea that we possess something.

Examples:

  • I don’t know about having a job vacancy in your school.
  • Having a comfortable life is what I want.

 

Compound Gerunds with ‘being’ and ‘after’ + Past Participle.

Examples:

  • He always likes being flattered.
  • He is aware of having committed the mistake.
  • He knew of his friend having been selected in the Civil Services.
  • The student complained of having been punished by the teacher.

After some verbs:

We use only Gerund but not Infinitives after the following verbs. 

Examples:

  • She enjoys painting.
  • I can’t stand doing anything.
  • They practised doing yoga.
  • I can’t help laughing.
Verbs followed by Gerund. 

• admit

• advise

• allow

• avoid

• can’t help

• can’t stand

• deny

• dislike

• enjoy

• fancy

• finish

• keep

• mind

• miss

• permit

• practise

• suggest

Gerund or Infinitive:

We can use either Infinitive or Gerund after the following Verbs.

Examples: 

  • I started to read. (or) 
  • I started reading it.
  • They began to work. (or) 
  • They began working.
  • I love to write poems. (or) 
  • I love writing poems.
• attempt

• begin

• bother

• cannot bear

• cease

• continue

• hate

• intend

• love

• prefer

• start 

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