Regular and Irregular Verbs

Verb Forms

Regular and Irregular Verbs

 

Main Verbs

  • The main verb expresses the main action or state of being of the subject in the sentence.  
  • Main Verbs are also called lexical verbs, full verbs, principal verbs, or non-auxiliary verbs.
  • It changes its form according to the subject and the tense.
  • Main verbs are helped sometimes by the auxiliary verbs to give full meaning.

 

For examples:

  • Geetha usually sits on the backbench.
  • Teena stands in the front row.
  • Naveena is a clever student.
  • Bhanu has seen this movie several times.
  • Shivani has been attending the live classes.

 

 Main verbs are further divided into two different groups – 

(1) Regular and Irregular Verbs (2) Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

 

Every main verb has five forms as shown in the table below.

Regular and Irregular Verbs

Regular and Irregular Verbs

Regular Verbs

Regular verbs normally form their past and past participle forms by adding -ed to the base form.

List of the Regular Verbs with the spelling rules: (Weak Verbs)

Base form/

Plain Infinitive/

Present Tense

Past Tense  Past Participle Present Participle -s or es Form
(V1) (V2) (V3) (V4) (V5)
By adding ed to the base form
accept accepted accepted accepting accepts
act acted acted acting acts
add added added adding adds
allow allowed allowed allowing allows
answer answered answered answering answers
appear appeared appeared appearing appears
applaud applauded applauded applauding applauds
arrest arrested arrested arresting arrests
ask asked asked asking asks
attack attacked attacked attacking attacks
attempt attempted attempted attempting attempts
awaken awakened awakened awakening awakens
bang banged banged banging bangs
belong belonged belonged belonging belongs
beam beamed beamed beaming beams
bless blessed blessed blessing blesses
blind blinded blinded blinding blinds
blink blinked blinked blinking blinks
branch branched branched branching branches
bump bumped bumped bumping bumps
burn burned/burnt burned/burnt burning burns
cheat cheated cheated cheating cheats
check checked checked checking checks
chew chewed chewed chewing chews
clean cleaned cleaned cleaning cleans
coach coached coached coaching coaches
command commanded commanded commanding commands
concern concerned concerned concerning concerns
connect connected connected connecting connects
consist consisted consisted consisting consists
deliver delivered delivered delivering delivers
desert deserted deserted deserting deserts
detect detected detected detecting detects
develop developed developed developing develops
disturb disturbed disturbed disturbing disturbs
dream dreamed dreamed dreaming dreams
dress dressed dressed dressing dresses
drown drowned drowned drowning drowns
dust dusted dusted dusting dusts
embarrass embarrassed embarrassed embarrassing embarrasses
end ended ended ending ends
enter entered entered entering enters
entertain entertained entertained entertaining entertains
exist existed existed existing exists
expand expanded expanded expanding expands
extend extended extended extending extends
fail failed failed failing fails
fasten fastened fastened fastening fastens
fetch fetched fetched fetching fetches
fill filled filled filling fills
film filmed filmed filming films
fix fixed fixed fixing fixes
flood flooded flooded flooding floods
flow flowed flowed flowing flows
flower flowered flowered flowering flowers
follow followed followed following follows
form formed formed forming forms
frighten frightened frightened frightening frightens
gather gathered gathered gathering gathers
glow glowed glowed glowing glows
greet greeted greeted greeting greets
groan groaned groaned groaning groans
guard guarded guarded guarding guards
guess guessed guessed guessing guesses
hammer hammered hammered hammering hammers
hang hanged/hung hanged/hung hanging hangs
happen happened happened happening happens
heat heated heated heating heats
heap heaped heaped heaping heaps
heal healed healed healing heals
help helped helped helping helps
hunt hunted hunted hunting hunts
impress impressed impressed impressing impresses
inform informed informed informing informs
inject injected injected injecting injects
instruct instructed instructed instructing instructs
intend intended intended intending intends
interest interested interested interesting interests
interrupt interrupted interrupted interrupting interrupts
invent invented invented inventing invents
itch itched itched itching itches
jail jailed jailed jailing jails
join joined joined joining joins
jump jumped jumped jumping jumps
kick kicked kicked kicking kicks
kill killed killed killing kills
kiss kissed kissed kissing kisses
kneel kneeled/knelt kneeled/knelt kneeling kneels
knock knocked knocked knocking knocks
land landed landed landing lands
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt learning learns
lick licked licked licking licks
lighten lightened lightened lightening lightens
listen listened listened listening listens
load loaded loaded loading loads
lock locked locked locking locks
look looked looked looking looks
march marched marched marching marchs
mark marked marked marking marks
match matched matched matching matches
melt melted melted melting melts
mend mended mended mending mends
miss missed missed missing misses
mix mix mix mix mix
murder murdered murdered murdering murders
nail nailed nailed nailing nails
need needed needed needing needs
nest nested nested nesting nests
object objected objected objecting objects
obtain obtained obtained obtaining obtains
offend offended offended offending offends
open opened opened opening opens
own owned owned owning owns
pack packed packed packing packs
paint painted painted painting paints
park parked parked parking parks
part parted parted parting parts
pass passed passed passing passes
perform performed performed performing performs
pinch pinched pinched pinching pinches
plant planted planted planting plants
point pointed pointed pointing points
present presented presented presenting presents
pretend pretended pretended pretending pretends
programm programmed programmed programming programmes
protect protected protected protecting protects
punish punished punished punishing punishes
question questioned questioned questioning questions
rain rained rained raining rains
record recorded recorded recording records
reflect reflected reflected reflecting reflects
reject rejected rejected rejecting rejects
remind reminded reminded reminding reminds
review reviewed reviewed reviewing reviews
rock rocked rocked rocking rocks
rush rushed rushed rushing rushes
sail sailed sailed sailing sails
saw sawed sawed sawing saws
scold scolded scolded scolding scolds
scratch scratched scratched scratching scratches
scream screamed screamed screaming screams
seal sealed sealed sealing seals
search searched searched searching searches
shock shocked shocked shocking shocks
sigh sighed sighed sighing sighs
smash smashed smashed smashing smashes
snatch snatched snatched snatching snatches
snow snowed snowed snowing snows
soak soaked soaked soaking soaks
sound sounded sounded sounding sounds
spark sparked sparked sparking sparks
stain stained stained staining stains
stamp stamped stamped stamping stamps
start started started starting starts
suggest suggested suggested suggesting suggests
support supported supported supporting supports
suspect suspected suspected suspecting suspects
suspend suspended suspended suspending suspends
talk talked talked talking talks
tempt tempted tempted tempting tempts
test tested tested testing tests
thank thanked thanked thanking thanks
touch touched touched touching touches
trust trusted trusted trusting trusts
turn turned turned turning turns
undress undressed undressed undressing undresses
unlock unlocked unlocked unlocking unlocks
vanish vanished vanished vanishing vanishes
visit visited visited visiting visits
wait waited waited waiting waits
walk walked walked walking walks
want wanted wanted wanting wants
warn warned warned warning warns
wash washed washed washing washes
watch watched watched watching watches
wink winked winked winking winks
wish wished wished wishing wishes
work worked worked working works
wreck wrecked wrecked wrecking wrecks
yawn  yawned yawned  yawning  yawns 
yell yelled yelled yelling yells
zoom zoomed zoomed zooming zooms
We only add -d (not -ed) to the Regular Verbs that end in -e 
analyse analysed analysed analysing  analyses
apologise  apologised  apologised apologising apologises 
admire admired admired  admiring  admires
agree agreed agreed agreeing agrees
approve approved approved approving  approves
behave  behaved behaved behaving  behaves
change changed changed changing changes
care  cared cared caring cares
bake  baked baked baking bakes 
argue argued argued arguing  argues 
appreciate appreciated appreciated appreciating appreciates
bore bored bored boring bores
breathe breathed breathed breathing breathes
cause caused caused causing causes
charge charged charged charging charges
chase chased chased chasing chases
close closed closed closing closes
compare compared compared comparing compares
complete completed completed completing completes
like liked liked liking likes
decide decided decided deciding decides
escape escaped escaped escaping escapes
force forced forced forcing forces
guide guided guided guiding guides
hate hated hated hating hates
hope hoped hoped hoping hopes
invite invited invited inviting invites
live lived lived living lives
move moved moved moving moves
manage managed managed managing manages
notice noticed noticed noticing notices
owe  owed  owed owing owes 
phone phoned phoned phoning phones
recognise recognised recognised recognising recognises
remove removed removed removing removes
settle settled settled settling settles
shave shaved shaved shaving shaves
smile smiled smiled smiling smiles
snore snored snored snoring snores
stare stared stared staring stares
taste tasted tasted tasting tastes
use used used using uses
When the Regular Verbs end in a consonant and –y, we change –y into -i and add -ed.
accompany accompanied accompanied accompanying accompanies
apply applied applied applying applies
bully  bullied  bullied bullying bullies 
bury  buried buried burying buries 
carry  carried carried carrying carries
clarify  clarified  clarified clarifying clarifies 
copy  copied copied copying  copies 
cry cried cried crying cries
deny denied denied denying denies
dry  dried dried drying dries 
empty  emptied emptied emptying  empties 
fancy fancied fancied fancying fancies
fry fried fried frying fries
horrify horrified horrified horrifying horrifies
hurry  hurried hurried hurrying hurries 
identify identified identified identifying identifies
imply  implied  implied  implying  implies
marry married married marrying marries
multiply  multiplied  multiplied  multiplying  multiplies 
rely relied relied relying relies
reply  replied replied replying replies 
satisfy  satisfied satisfied satisfying satisfies 
supply  supplied supplied  supplying  supplies 
study  studied studied studying  studies 
terrify  terrified terrified  terrifying terrifies 
tidy  tidied  tidied  tidying tidies 
try tried tried trying tries
Note:

We add –ed without changing -y into -i if the verb ends in a vowel and -y

annoy annoyed annoyed annoying annoys
delay delayed delayed delaying delays
destroy destroyed destroyed destroying destroys
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed enjoying enjoys
employ employed employed employing employs
play played played playing plays
spray  sprayed sprayed  spraying  sprays 
stay stayed stayed staying stays
x-ray x-rayed x-rayed x-raying x-rays
When the Regular Verbs end in a single vowel and a consonant, we double the consonant and add –ed
ban banned banned banning bans
beg begged begged begging begs
chat chatted chatted chatting chats
chop chopped chopped chopping chops
clap  clapped clapped clapping  claps 
clip  clipped clipped  clipping  clips 
drop  dropped  dropped  dropping  drops 
drag  dragged dragged  dragging  drags 
fit  fitted  fitted  fitting  fits 
flip  flipped  flipped  flipping  flips 
grab grabbed grabbed grabbing grabs
grin  grinned  grinned  grinning  grins 
grip gripped gripped gripping grips
hug  hugged  hugged  hugging  hugs 
jog jogged jogged jogging jogs
knit  knitted knitted  knitting  knits 
mug  mugged  mugged  mugging  mugs 
nod  nodded  nodded  nodding  nods 
pat  patted  patted  patting  pats 
plan planned planned planing plans
rob  robbed  robbed  robbing  robs 
shop shopped shopped shopping shops
skid  skidded  skidded  skidding  skids 
scrub scrubbed scrubbed scrubbing scrubs
ship shipped shipped shipping ships
skip  skipped  skipped skipping  skips 
slip slipped slipped slipping slips
snap  snapped  snapped  snapping  snaps 
spot  spotted  spotted  spotting  spots 
star starred starred starring stars
stir  stirred  stirred  stirring  stirs 
thin thinned thinned thinning thins
top topped topped topping tops
trip tripped tripped tripping trips
wrap wrapped wrapped wrapping wraps
admit admitted admitted admitting admits
commit committed committed committing commits
confer conferred conferred conferring confers
deter deterred deterred detering deters
kidnap  kidnapped  kidnapped  kidnapping  kidnaps 
permit permitted permitted permitting permits
prefer preferred preferred preferring prefers
refer referred referred referring refers
regret regretted regretted regretting regrets
transfer transferred transferred transferring transfers
transmit transmitted transmitted transmitting transmits
cancel cancelled cancelled cancelling cancels
control controlled controlled controlling controls
label labelled labelled labelling labels
marvel marvelled marvelled marvelling marvels
patrol  patrolled  patrolled  patrolling  patrols 
pedal  pedalled  pedalled  pedalling  pedals 
quarrel quarrelled quarrelled quarrelling quarrels
travel travelled travelled travelling travels

How to pronounce -ed at the end of the verb:

There are three ways to pronounce -ed, depending on the last letter of the verb.

 

/t/ /id/ /d/
Verbs ending                  

-f, -k, -ss, -ch, -sh, -x -p

Ex: watched, fixed, kicked

Verbs ending in

-d or -t

Ex: needed, wanted

Verbs ending with all other letters

Ex: listened, played

Irregular Verbs

There are approximately 200 irregular verbs in English. They are divided into four types:

  1. Irregular Verbs which are the same in base form, past tense and past participle (Unchangeable Irregular Verbs)
  2. Irregular Verbs which are the same in the past tense and past participle
  3. Irregular Verbs which are the same in base form and past participle
  4. Irregular Verbs which are different in base form, past tense and past participle

List of the Irregular Verbs: 

Base Form, Past Tense, and Past Participle are the same: 

(Unchangeable Irregular Verbs)

Base form/

Plain Infinitive/

Present Tense

Past Tense  Past Participle Present Participle -s or es Form
(V1) (V2) (V3) (V4) (V5)
bet bet bet betting bets
bid bid/bade bid/bidden bidding bids
broadcast broadcast broadcast broadcasting broadcasts
burst burst burst bursting bursts
cost cost cost costing costs
cut cut cut cutting cuts
hit hit hit hitting hits
hurt hurt hurt hurting hurts
let let let letting lets
put put put putting puts
read read read reading reads
quit quit quit quitting quits
set set set setting sets
shut shut shut shutting shuts
split split split splitting splits
spread spread spread spreading spreads

 

Past Tense and Past Participle are the same:

(the verbs ending in -d or -t  are Weak Verbs and the remaining are Strong Verbs)

Base form/

Plain Infinitive/

Present Tense

Past Tense  Past Participle Present Participle -s or es Form
(V1) (V2) (V3) (V4) (V5)
bend bent bent bending bends
bleed bled bled bleeding bleeds
breed bred bred breeding breeds
bring brought brought bringing brings
build built built building builds
burn burnt/ burned burn/  burned burning burns
buy bought bought buying buys
catch caught caught catching catches
cling clung clung clinging clings
creep crept crept creeping creeps
deal dealt dealt dealing deals
dig dug dug digging digs
dream dreamt/ dreamed dreamt/  dreamed dreaming dreams
feed fed fed feeding feeds
feel felt felt feeling feels
fight fought fought fighting fights
find found found finding finds
flee fled fled fleeing flees
get got got/gotten getting gets
grind ground ground grinding grinds
hang hung/ hanged hung/ hanged hanging hangs
have had had having has
hear heard heard hearing hears
hide hid hid/hidden hiding hides
hold held held holding holds
keep kept kept keeping keeps
kneel knelt/ kneeled knelt/ kneeled kneeling kneels
lay laid laid laying lays
lead led led leading leads
leave left left leaving leaves
lean lent/leaned lent/leaned leaning leans
learn learnt/

learned

learnt/

learned

learning learns
leap leapt/

leaped

leapt/

leaped

leaping leaps
lend lent lent lending lends
light lit lit lighting lights
lose lost lost losing loses
make made made making makes
mean meant meant meaning means
meet met met meeting meets
pay paid paid paying pays
say said said saying says
seek sought sought seeking seeks
sell sold sold selling sells
send sent sent sending sends
shine shone shone shining shines
shoot shot shot shooting shoots
sit sat sat sitting sits
sleep slept slept sleeping sleeps
smell smelt/ smelled smelt/

smelled

smelling smells
spell spelt spelt spelling spells
speed sped sped speeding speeds
spill spilt/ spilled spill/

spilled

spilling spills
slide slid slid sliding slides
sling slung slung slinging slings
spend spent spent spending spends
spoil spoilt/

spoiled

spoilt/

spoiled

spoiling spoils
spit spat spat spitting spits
stand stood stood standing stands
stick stuck stuck sticking sticks
sting stung stung stinging stings
strike struck struck striking strikes
string strung strung stringin strings
sweep swept swept sweeping sweeps
swing swung swung swinging swings
teach taught taught teaching teaches
tell told told telling tells
think thought thought thinking thinks
understand understood understood understanding understands
weep wept wept weeping weeps
win won won winning wins
wind wound wound winding winds

 

 

Base Form and Past Participle are the same: (Strong Verbs)
Base form/

Plain Infinitive/

Present Tense

Past Tense  Past Participle Present Participle -s or es Form
(V1) (V2) (V3) (V4) (V5)
become became become becoming becomes
come came come coming comes
run ran run running runs
beat* beat* beaten* beating beats

 

Base Form, Past Tense and Past Participle, are different: (Strong Verbs)
Base form/

Plain Infinitive/

Present Tense

Past Tense  Past Participle Present Participle -s or es Form
(V1) (V2) (V3) (V4) (V5)
abide abode/ abided abode/ abided/

abidden

abiding abides
arise arose arisen arising arises
awake awoke awoken awaking awakes
be (am/are) was /were been being is
bear bore born/ borne bearing bears
begin began begun beginning begins
bite bit bitten biting bites
blow blew blown blowing blows
break broke broken breaking breaks
choose chose chosen choosing chooses
cleave clove/

cleft

cloven/cleft cleaving cleaves
do did done doing does
draw drew drawn drawing draws
drink drank drunk/

drunken(adj)

drinking drink
drive drove driven driving drives
eat ate eaten eating eats
fall fell fallen falling falls
fly flew flown flying flys
forbid forbade forbidden forbidding forbids
forget forgot forgotten forgetting forgets
forgive forgave forgiven forgiving forgives
forsake forsook forsaken forsaking forsakes
freeze froze frozen freezing freezes
give gave given giving gives
go went gone going goes
grow grew grown growing grows
hide hid hidden/hid hiding hides
know knew known knowing knows
lie lay lain lying lies
mistake mistook mistaken mistaking mistakes
ride rode ridden riding rides
ring rang rung ringing rings
rise rose risen rising rises
see saw seen seeing sees
sew sewed sewn sewing sews
shave shaved shaven/

shaved

shaving shaves
shake shook shaken shaking shakes
show showed shown showing shows
shrink shrank shrunk shrinking shrinks
sink sank sunk sinking sinks
sing sang sung singing sings
slay slew slain slaying slays
sow sowed sown sowing sows
speak spoke spoken speaking speaks
spin span/spun spun spinning spins
spring sprang sprung springing springs
steal stole stolen stealing steals
stink stank stunk stinking stinks
swear swore sworn swearing swears
swim swam swum swimming swims
take took taken taking takes
tear tore torn tearing tears
throw threw thrown throwing throws
tread trod trod/ trodden treading treads
wake woke woken waking wakes
wear wore worn wearing wears
weave  wove woven weaving weaves
write wrote written writing writes

 

The Main Verbs in English can also be divided into Strong and Weak Verbs, according to the way in which they form their Past Tense and Past Participle. 

 

Strong Verbs

Strong verbs are those that form their Past Tense and Past Participle by changing inside vowels without adding any suffix. 

 

Weak Verbs

Weak Verbs are those that form their Past Tense and Past Participle by adding -d, -ed, or –t, to the base verb.

 

Actually, this division is given more importance in old English grammar rather than in modern English grammar. Moreover, it is a bit confusing to the learners as well as to the teachers of the English language. So, it is always advisable to concentrate on the terms Regular and Irregular Verbs rather than Strong and Weak verbs. 

 

 Some Troublesome Verbs:

Base form Past Tense Past Participle Meaning
Bear Bore Born To give birth
Bear Bore Borne To carry
fall fell fallen To drop-down
fell felled felled To cause something to fall
find found found To discover
found founded founded To begin
hang hung hung To suspend /display
hang  hanged  hanged To put to death by tying a rope round the neck
lie lay lain To rest or remain
lie lied lied To speak falsely
lay laid laid To put/place something down
rise rose risen To get up, to come up
raise raised raised To lift
see saw seen To perceive with eyes
saw sawed sawn/sawed To cut (wood)
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